Healthy Communities- April 4, 2014

Reports and Articles
fruit and veg in market Review cites link between lower diabetes risk, Mediterranean diet
People who adhered to the Mediterranean diet were 21% less likely than those in the control group to develop type 2 diabetes, according to Greek researchers who reviewed 12 studies. The findings were slated for presentation at the American College of Cardiology meeting. PhysiciansBriefing.com/HealthDay News

Study: Diet of Fruit, Vegetables Linked to Reduced Risk of Death
Diets heavy on fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk of death at any age by as much as 42 percent, according to a new study in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Using data on the eating habits of more than 65,000 people in England from 2011 to 2013, researchers determined that the risk of death was reduced by 36 percent with five to seven portions, 29 percent with three to five portions and 14 percent with one to three portions. More specifically, they also determined that eating seven or more portions of fruits and vegetables reduced the risk of death from heart disease by 31 percent and the risk of death from cancer by 25 percent. “We all know that eating fruit and vegetables is healthy, but the size of the effect is staggering,” study author Oyinlola Oyebode, at the department of epidemiology and public health of University College London, in a release. “Vegetables have a larger effect than fruit, but fruit still makes a real difference. If you’re happy to snack on carrots or other vegetables, then that is a great choice but if you fancy something sweeter, a banana or any fruit will also do you good.” Read more on nutrition.

The Public Health Action Plan to Prevent Heart Disease and Stroke:Ten-Year Update
The National Forum for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention
The report calls for a series of actions to be taken, while detailing progress made to date —  “Since the launch of the original Action Plan, the opportunities to reduce CVD incidence and risk have become significantly clearer, and specific actions have been identified to exploit these opportunities. Sound policies and programs to improve cardiovascular health are in place and known to be effective. Significant progress has been made over the past decade.”

Diabetes in pregnancy may spur long-term health risks in offspring
An analysis in the journal Current Diabetes Reports revealed men born to mothers who had diabetes during pregnancy had a higher BMI than their brothers born prior to their mother’s diagnosis. Researchers also found diabetes during pregnancy was associated with increased incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in offspring. DailyRx.com (4/1)

In Smart Growth America’s new report on sprawl
There is a focus on health indicators. The report found significant associations between sprawl and BMI, obesity, blood pressure, diabetes, and life expectancy, but no significant relationship between sprawl and “any physical activity” as measured by BRFSS. This report covers large metropolitan areas, but may have lessons for smaller cities too. The research found that people in compact, connected communities:

  •          have greater upward economic mobility
  •          spend less on the combined expenses of housing and transportation
  •          choose to use transit and walk more
  •          live longer
  •          have fewer fatal car crashes
  •          have lower body mass index

 

Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data
Background Governments worldwide recommend daily consumption of fruit and vegetables. We examine whether this benefits health in the general population of England.

Methods Cox regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CI for an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality, adjusting for age, sex, social class, education, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity, in 65 226 participants aged 35+ years in the 2001–2008 Health Surveys for England, annual surveys of nationally representative random samples of the non-institutionalised population of England linked to mortality data (median follow-up: 7.7 years).

Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with decreased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR for 7+ portions 0.67 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.78), reference category <1 portion). This association was more pronounced when excluding deaths within a year of baseline (0.58 (0.46 to 0.71)). Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with reduced cancer (0.75 (0.59–0.96)) and cardiovascular mortality (0.69 (0.53 to 0.88)). Vegetables may have a stronger association with mortality than fruit (HR for 2 to 3 portions 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) and 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98), respectively). Consumption of vegetables (0.85 (0.81 to 0.89) per portion) or salad (0.87 (0.82 to 0.92) per portion) were most protective, while frozen/canned fruit consumption was apparently associated with increased mortality (1.17 (1.07 to 1.28) per portion).

Conclusions A robust inverse association exists between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality, with benefits seen in up to 7+ portions daily. Further investigations into the effects of different types of fruit and vegetables are warranted.

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