Tobacco- June 13, 2014


Potentially Preventable Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death — United States, 2008–2010.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (May 2, 2014).
In 2010, the top five causes of death in the United States were 1) diseases of the heart, 2) cancer, 3) chronic lower respiratory diseases, 4) cerebrovascular diseases (stroke), and 5) unintentional injuries.  Tobacco is implicated in the top 4 causes of preventable death.

Making It Harder to Smoke and Easier to Quit: The Effect of 10 Years of Tobacco Control in New York City.
American Journal of Public Health (Jun 2014).
The adult smoking rate declined by 28% from 2002 to 2012, and the youth smoking rate declined by 52% from 2001 to 2011.

Data Release of State Appropriation and Expenditures Funding Data for Tobacco Control in the State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System.
CDC/OSH.  Data of 1991-2011 state appropriations and 2008-2011 state expenditures for tobacco control.  The data are accessible through the detailed and state comparison reports, interactive maps, and excel data file downloads.

How the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Affects Tobacco Use and Control.
Tobacco Control Legal Consortium (Mar 2014). This fact sheet summarizes the main provisions of the ACA that impact tobacco use and control.

Policy Tools for Minimizing Public Health and Environmental Effects of Cigarette Waste.
The Tobacco Control Legal Consortium (2014).  An update of a guide on measures to minimize the adverse public health and environmental effects of cigarette waste.

Reports and Articles

Study: Prenatal Medicaid Policy Reduces Smoking, But Doesn’t Improve Preterm Birthweights
While a Medicaid policy that fast-tracks applications of pregnant women helps reduce smoking during pregnancy, it has no significant effect on improving preterm birth rates or low birth weights, according to a new study in the journal Health Affairs. The study specifically looked at Medicaid’s presumptive eligibility and unborn-child option, which provides coverage for prenatal care. “Although the prevalence of prenatal smoking in the United States has declined in recent decades, it is nearly twice as high among low-income women enrolled in Medicaid than it is in the U.S. population as a whole,” said Marian Jarlenski, PhD, lead author of the paper. “Our research shows that Medicaid’s presumptive eligibility policy led to a nearly 8 percentage-point decrease in smoking during pregnancy, but neither policy significantly improved rates of preterm birth or babies born small for their gestational age.” Read more on maternal and infant health.

Disparities in Current Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Type of Disability, 2009-2011. Public Health Reports (May 2014).  Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%). Among adults with disabilities, the prevalence of smoking ranged from 32.4% (self-care difficulty) to 43.8% (cognitive limitation).

A Review of the Literature Concerning HIV and Cigarette Smoking: Morbidity and Mortality, Associations with Individual- and Social-level Characteristics, and Smoking Cessation Efforts.
Addiction Research & Theory (online on May 19, 2014). Topics include: morbidity, mortality, treatment and medication adherence outcomes; individual- and social-level characteristics associated with various smoking behaviors; evidence-based smoking cessation interventions; and findings from cessation interventions among smokers with HIV.

The Unique Challenges Facing HIV-Positive Patients Who Smoke Cigarettes: HIV Viremia, Art Adherence, Engagement in HIV care, and Concurrent Substance Use.
AIDS and Behavior (Epub ahead of print, Apr 27, 2014). Findings underscore the need for integrated behavioral smoking cessation interventions and routine tobacco screenings in HIV primary care.

CDC Study Finds No Significant Change in Use of Smokeless Tobacco
From 2005 to 2010 there was no significant change in the percentage of U.S. working adults who used smokeless tobacco, according to the new National Health Interview Survey from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2005, approximately 2.7 percent of workers reported using smokeless tobacco, with the percentage climbing slightly to 3.0 percent in 2010; males (5.6 percent) and non-Hispanic whites (4.0 percent) reported the highest usage, followed by adults ages 25-44 years, people with no more than a high school education and people living in the South (all 3.9 percent). By industry, smokeless tobacco use was most common in mining (18.8 percent), and by occupation it was most common in construction and extraction (10.8 percent). According to the CDC, these findings indicate opportunities to engage workers with tobacco cessation efforts, such as  providing employee health insurance coverage for proven cessation treatments; offering help for those who want to quit; and establishing and enforcing tobacco-free workplace policies. Read more on tobacco.

Sen. Jeff Merkley takes aim at e-cigarettes
Sen. Jeff Merkley addressed a growing issue with parents and health professionals Friday by urging the Food and Drug Administration to exercise its power to regulate the growing e-cigarette and nicotine candy industries

flavored-tobacco-productsCandy Flavorings in Tobacco.
New England Journal of Medicine
(Epub ahead of print, May 7, 2014).
The same, familiar, chemical-specific flavor sensory cues that are associated with fruit flavors in popular candy and drink products are being exploited in the engineered designs of flavored tobacco products. What we are seeing is truly candy-flavored tobacco.

Lifetime Cumulative Exposure to Waterpipe Smoking Is Associated With Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).
Atherosclerosis (Apr 15, 2014). Cumulative exposure is significantly associated with severe CAD.

Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure after Water Pipe Smoking in Hookah Bars.
Journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention (Published Online First May 16, 2014). Water pipe smoking is associated with significant nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure.

How U.S. Adults Find Out About Electronic Cigarettes: Implications for Public Health Messages.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (Epub ahead of print, Apr 22, 2014).
Nearly all U.S. adults had heard of e-cigarettes in 2013.

Chief pushes forward with plans for Youth Substance Abuse Team
The Tigard Times
Sherwood Police Chef Jeff Groth is hoping he will soon have a program to address growing concerns about drug and alcohol abuse among city youth by providing preventative and other measures to deal with those problems (article includes mention of Sherwood planning to tighten up youth e-cigarette restrictions):

More than 11 percent of smokers who used a text
Salem News
Messaging program to help them quit did so and remained smoke free at the end of a six – month study as compared to just 5 percent of controls, according to a new report by researchers at Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University:

Epidemiological Trends in Electronic Cigarette Exposures Reported to U.S. Poison Centers.
Clinical Toxicology (Epub ahead of print, May 5, 2014).
The majority of exposures to e-cigarette devices and components occurred in children of 5 years or below due to accidental exposure.


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